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Atom - tiny basic building block of matter. All the material on Earth is composed of various combinations of atoms. Atoms are the smallest particles of a chemical element that still exhibit all the chemical properties unique to that element. A row of 100 million atoms would be only about a centimeter long. See also Chemical Element.
Acid Property #1. The word acid comes from the Latin word acere, which means "sour." All acids taste sour. Well known from ancient times were vinegar, sour milk and lemon juice. Aspirin tastes sour if you don't swallow it fast enought. Its scientific name is acetosallicylic acid! Other languages derive their word for acid from the meaning of sour. So, in France, we have acide. In Germany, we have säure from saure and in Russia, kislota from kisly.
Base Property #1. The word "base" has a more complex history (see below) and its name is not related to taste. All bases taste bitter. Mustard tastes bitter. Many medicines, cough syrup is one, taste bitter. This is the reason cough syrups are advertised as having a "great grape taste." The taste is added in order to cover the bitterness of the active ingredient in cough syrup.
1. The amount of a substance that contains as many atoms, molecules, ions, or other elementary units as the number of atoms in 0.012 kilogram of carbon 12. The number is 6.0225 × 1023, or Avogadro's number. Also called gram molecule.
2. The mass in grams of this amount of a substance, numerically equal to the molecular weight of the substance. Also called gram-molecular weight.
The Ideal Gas Equation – Pressure*Volume=mole*R*temperature (PV=nRT) The value and units of R depend on the units used in determining P, V, n and T, but it is usually .0821, or this number multiplied by a unit of ten.? This equation come from a series of other gas laws; Boyles law Va(1/P), Charles law VaT, and Avogadro's law Van.
One meter equals
One centimeter equals
One millimeter equals
One kilometer equals
.53996 nautical mile
One nautical mile equals
One inch equals
One foot equals
One yard equals
One mile equals
.868976 nautical mile
One metric ton equals
1.10229 U.S. tons
One kilogram equals
One gram equals
One U.S. ton equals
.9072 metric tons
One pound equals
One ounce equals
One grain equals
To convert Celsius to Fahrenheit, multiply by 1.8, then add 32.
To convert Fahrenheit to Celsius, subtract 32, then divide by 1.8.
One meter per second equals
3.6 kilometers per hour
2.2369 miles per hour
3.2808 feet per second
One kilometer per hour equals
.27778 meters per second
.62137 miles per hour
.91134 feet per second
One kilometer per second equals
3600 kilometers per hour
2236.94 miles per hour
3280.84 feet per second
.62137 miles per second
One mile per hour equals
.44704 meters per second
1.6093 kilometers per hour
1.4667 feet per second
One knot equals
.51444 meters per second
1.852 kilometers per hour
1.1508 miles per hour
1.6878 feet per second
One foot per second equals
.3048 meters per second
1.09728 kilometers per hour
.68182 miles per hour
One mile per second equals
1609.344 meters per second
5793.6384 kilometers per hour
3600 miles per hour
5280 feet per second
One kilopascal equals
.2953 inches of mercury
7.5006 millimeters of mercury
.14504 pounds per square inch
One hectopascal (used in U.S. aviation weather reports) equals
.1 kilopascal or 100 pascals
One inch of mercury equals
25.4 millimeters of mercury
.49115 pound per square inch
One millimeter of mercury equals
.03937 inch of mercury
.019337 pound per square inch
One pound per square inch equals
2.036 inches of mercury
51.715 millimeters of mercury
One square meter equals
1550 square inches
10.7639 square feet
1.19599 square yards
One square centimeter equals
.155 square inch
One square millimeter equals
.00155 square inch
One hectare equals
107639.1 square feet
11959.9 square yards
.003861 square mile
.0029155 square nautical mile
One square kilometer equals
.3861 square mile
.29155 square nautical mile
One square inch equals
6.4516 square centimeters
645.16 square millimeters
One square foot equals
.0929 square meter
929.03 square centimeters
144 square inches
One square yard equals
.83613 square meter
1296 square inches
9 square feet
One acre equals
4046.86 square meters
.004047 square kilometers
43560 square feet
4840 square yards
.0015625 square mile
.0011799 square nautical mile
One square mile equals
2.59 square kilometers
.75512 square nautical mile
One square nautical mile equals
3.4299 square kilometers
1.3243 square miles
One fluid ounce equals
1.8047 cubic inches
One liquid cup equals
8 fluid ounces
14.4375 cubic inches
One liquid pint equals
16 fluid ounces
28.875 cubic inches
One liter equals
33.814 fluid ounces
61.0237 cubic inches
One milliliter equals
One cubic meter equals
35.3147 cubic feet
1.30795 cubic yards
One teaspoon equals
.30078 cubic inch
One tablespoon equals
.5 fluid ounce
.90234 cubic inch
One liquid quart equals
32 fluid ounces
57.75 cubic inches
One liquid gallon equals
128 fluid ounces
231 cubic inches
One dry peck equals
536.4 cubic inches
One dry bushel equals
2145.6 cubic inches
1.2417 cubic feet
One cubic inch equals
.55411 fluid ounce
One cubic foot equals
1728 cubic inches
One cubic yard equals
.76455 cubic meter
27 cubic feet
One gram per cubic centimeter equals
1000 kilograms per cubic meter
62.4269 pounds per cubic foot
998.83 ounces per cubic foot
One pound per cubic foot equals
16.0187 kilograms per cubic meter
One ounce per cubic foot equals
1.00117 kilograms per cubic meter
LeChatelier Principle and Spectrophotometry
This experiment was designed to prove the Le Chatetlier principle. By placing differing dilution factors of hydrochloric acid into six tubes, we then took the tube that was the most in-between and performed a series of tests to see whether we could prove that a reaction can be reversed. We found that it could. We then took the most extreme two of these liquid dilutions and placed them in a spectrophotometer. This tested to see what wavelengths were being left behind as the light pasted thought the liquid.
In 1888, Le Chatetlier gave a succinct statement of the principle he had announced 4 years prior. It is: Every change of one of the factors of an equilibrium occasions a rearrangement of the system in such a direction that the factor in question experiences a change in a sense opposite to the original change. This experiment proved his theory. It also proved that light, when passed through a given substance, absorbs some of the wave lengths, providing colored light.
We first placed 5 ml of cobalt nitrate into six labeled test tubes. From there we added hydrochloric acid and water to each tube as is in the chart on the next page. Stirring well, we recorded the colors. After we had recorded all the colors we took the tube which had the most in-between color and divided the contents into three equal parts. The first part we cooled. The second part we warmed in hot water, and the third one we kept the same. After these had sat for a while, we took them out and again looked at the color of them. Next, the tube that had been in cold water was put in hot water, and the tube that was in hot water was put in cold water. For the umpteenth time we looked at the color. After all that was done, we got in line to use the spectrophotometer and while we were waiting, went over our results thus far. We also transferred test tubes 1 through 6 (look at the chart) into two cuvettes so that when we go there, we could use the light device right away. Finally we got there and put the samples into the spectrophotometer after having set the device to the correct zero by using clear water. After having gotten charts of the visible spectrum of light which passed though the substance, we printed them out and handed them to the all powerful chemistry professor to have copies magically made of them.
Results & discussion
As a result of the experiment we found that the test tube that had no HCl in it was pink and the test tube that had the greatest amount of HCl in it was violet and that the test tubes which less HCl were colors in-between the to extremes. The test tube which was the most in-between when cooled (turned fuchsia) or heated (turned violet) could be then reversed to show the opposite color, proving that almost every action has an equal and opposite reaction. There was a slight error however, for when we switched the tubes, they did not go quite back to the exact same color as they should have been. The most probable reason for that is because the first time they were heated and cooled, they were at room temperature, and the second time they were at much higher and lower temperatures, so they had a longer time in which to switch, but we kept them in for about the same length of time as before. When we tested the spectrophotometry, we found that the violet sample had much more of an absorbance value. This makes some sense, seeing as how the violet was much darker than the pink. These results could almost be predicted because, just looking at the color, if pink can be seen coming through this means that blue is being blocked (absorbed), and if blue can be seen coming through, this means that that red is being blocked.
Conclusions (main points)
Like the ying and the yang, so science has its reactions to its results. Whether you wether is a fair weathered weather, or whether he weathers the storm, hither and thither or wander, together youll never go wron-g. Whether it is a neutered male goat or cobalt nitrate, both can produce differing results, given the parameters put in place by you or someone/something else. The one constant is that the beginning of the tale and the tail end of the story both, almost always, have to be equal, have to leave nothing out. Also, the perception of color can be adapted, based on the color being left out as a result of the light passing through a given substance.
Park, John L. Intro. to Henri Le Chatelier's Principle. 1999, 2003. Park, John L. 11/3/04 <http://dbhs.wvusd.k12.ca.us/webdocs/Equilibrium /LeChatelier-Intro.html>
John Mionczynski. The Pack Goat. Pruett Publishing Company, September 1, 1992.
Agnosia: Literally "not knowing," agnosia is the condition of not recognizing sensory stimuli. For example, someone with visual agnosia would have no trouble seeing an object, but lacks the ability to understand the image.
Amblyopia: A condition resulting from strabismus in one eye. Vision in the deviated eye is lost due to weakened connections with visual cortex, resulting in a loss of focus in an otherwise healthy eye.
Angular Gyrus: A section of the left temporal lobe involved in language processing, integrating information about letter shape, word recognition, meaning, and sound. It connects the occipital cortex with Wernicke's Area.
Asperger's Syndrome: A diagnosis given to high-functioning individuals with autism who have normal or above-average IQs and no clinically significant delays in language acquisition, age-appropriate self-help skills, or cognitive development.
Attachment theory: Theory, first articulated by John Bowlby, that humans attach themselves to their primary caregiver, in a way similar tothough much more complicated thanimprinting in goslings and other animals. Attachment theory was arguably the first scientific approach to understanding things like separation anxiety, and has influenced much of the discussion in the area of child development in the latter twentieth century.
Atypical depression: a type of depressive illness whose symptoms may include oversleeping, overeating, mood brightening in response to positive events, and extreme sensitivity to rejection or adversity.
Auditory feedback: The process by which humans learn to speak utilizing hearing and vocalization. In auditory feedback sounds heard are repeatedly mimicked and fine-tuned until they can be perfectly reproduced.
Auditory Nerve: The eighth cranial nerve, also called the acoustic nerve, or the vestibulocochlear nerve. Bundled nerve fibers extending from the cochlea of the ear to the brain. The bundle contains two branches: the cochlear nerve, which transmits sound information, and the vestibular nerve, which delivers information about balance. See the Cranial Nerve Table.
Autism: The three core features of this pervasive developmental disorder which appears early in life are: qualitative impairments in social interactions; repetitive, restricted and stereotyped behavior patterns; and impairments in communication.
Autobiographical Self: a term used by Antonio Damasio to represent our notion of self in terms of traits we consider part of our identity. It depends on systematic memories of facts and experiences that we consider the essence of who we are.
Blind spot: A spot in the visual field of each eye where the eye cannot see. The blind spot corresponds to the point in the retina where the optic nerve exits the eye, and which is devoid of photoreceptors.
Broca's Area: The central region for the production of speech. Located in the frontal lobe, typically in the left hemisphere, Broca's area is responsible for the production of words, word sound, syntactic comprehension, and working memory.
Brodmann Area 17: An area of cortex in the occipital lobe. Also called the V1, or primary visual cortex, because it receives the earliest information from the eyes by way of the thalamus. Also called striate cortex because in cross section, it has a distinct band of white myelin within the cell layer.
Causative comprehension: Understanding cause and effect.
Central Nervous System (CNS): The "Central Station" to which the peripheral and visceral (autonomic) systems send their sensory information. The CNS takes that sensory information and responds to the peripheral and visceral systems with motor instructions. The two main structures of the CNS are the brain and the spinal cord.
Cerebral Hemispheres: The halves of the brain, each with its own specific functions. The left hemisphere is typically associated with speech, writing, language and calculation, and the right hemisphere is typically associated with spatial perception, visual recognition, and aspects of music perception and production.
Noam Chomsky (1928-): American linguist whose book Syntactic Structures (1957) revolutionized the discipline of linguistics. Also an outspoken political critic, particularly of American foreign policy.
Chopper response pattern: An activity pattern exhibited by neurons in the cochlear nucleus called "chopper units." The chopper response pattern is characterized by repeated, rhythmic bursts of action potentials separated by relatively fixed time intervals.
Cleft transformation: A structure where a single clause is divided into two clauses, each with its own verb (It was the juice that the girl drank). Cleft transformation is challenging to understand because the object is moved to the beginning of sentence.
Cochlea: The inner ear. The location where the mechanical energy of sound is transduced into electrical signals that can be carried by the nervous system. The cochlea also contains the semicircular canals that are responsible for our sense of balance.
Cochlear Implant: A prosthetic, implanted, device that replaces the function of the cochlea in order to restore hearing. A microphone outside the head captures the sound and then transforms it into electrical signals which are sent to the auditory nerve directly.
Commissurotomy: Surgery, generally for sufferers of severe epilepsy, in which the hemispheres of the brain are disconnected from one another by the severing of the corpus callosum, and occasionally the many other commissuries, or connectors.
Concept-driven logic: The student using concept-driven logic relies on the sentence's context and on common sense, rather than comprehending the words and the syntax, and sometimes does not understand the sentence correctly.
Concussion: Changes of cerebral function caused by a direct or indirect force transmitted to the head. Symptoms include headaches, dizziness, confusion, vision impairment, nausea/vomiting or loss of consciousness.
Critical period, or sensitive period: The period of development during which an individual can permanently acquire certain behaviors or attributes; during this period, the individual is sensitive to the experiences or environmental influences that foster these capacities.
Decussation: A crossing over of nerve fiber tracts from one side of the body's midline to the other. Decussations typically result in the right hemisphere of the brain controlling the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere controlling the right side of the body.
Demyelination Disease: A disease of the nervous system in which myelin is damaged. Must be differentiated from dysmyelination disease. In the former, normal myelin is damaged; in the latter, the myelin is probably abnormal in the first place.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA): A long, thread-like molecule contained in the nucleus of cells that encodes the genetic information of an organism. DNA is a remarkable molecule because it can self-replicate. Half of a child's DNA contains genetic information from the mother, and half from the father.
Derivational morphemes: An affix added to a word that changes the root word's meaning and often its part of speech.
Derived word: A word formed by adding a derivational morpheme to a root word.
Diathesis-Stress Model: A model for all types of illness that suggests one can have a certain predisposition for a particular disorder that may or may not manifest itself, depending on the environmental conditions.
Dopamine: A neuromodulator acting principally through structures of the basal ganglia. Dopamine is associated with reward pathways, and low levels of dopamine are characteristic of Parkinson's disease.
Extrastriate: Visual areas in the cerebral cortex which are "downstream" of primary visual cortex. Extrastriate areas are associated with higher order features of vision, such as face recognition and spatial awareness.
Fusiform gyrus : Holds the functional regions responsible for color, identification of a face and recognition of facial expression . Damage to any of these areas leads to a deficit specific for that mode of visual function.
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI): A technique for imaging brain activity using magnets. fMRI is able to detect brain activity by taking advantage of the fact that deoxyhemoglobin has a different magnetic profile than oxyhemoglobin. Deoxyhemoglobin is concentrated in areas of high cellular metabolism, which correlates to high cellular activity.
Howard Gardner: (1943-) Harvard psychologist whose 1983 book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences revolutionized thinking about intelligence testing.
Herschel, Sir John: (1792-1871) English Astronomer who charted the southern hemisphere's stars from South Africa and pioneered celestial photography. He was the son of Sir William Herschel, the discover of Uranus.
Homeothermic: Describes animals with the ability to maintain a constant body temperature that is relatively independent of environmental temperature. Also known as warm-blooded which is a bit of a misnomer because the key feature of a homeothermic animal is that it can regulate a constant body temperature, not that it has a particularly high body temperature.
Hormone: a chemical that helps regulate the body's internal environment by traveling through the blood stream and binding to cells in target tissues. Hormones control metabolism, growth, sexual rhythms, and reproduction.
Hypothalamus: A brain structure providing specific functions such as regulating the activities of internal organs, monitoring information from the autonomic (peripheral) nervous system and controlling the pituitary gland.
Inference: A hypothesis based on given facts.
Inferential comprehension: The ability to create a hypothesis based on given facts.
Intelligence Quotient: The product of dividing mental age by chronological age. I.Q. is a revision by German psychologist W. Stern of Alfred Binets original formula of subtracting mental age from chronological age.
Isocortex: Literally meaning "same cortex," because it has similar structure throughout. Also known as neocortex. Located in the dorsal, or front part of the brain, the isocortex is especially large in higher primates and is responsible for sensory and motor processing as well as abstract reasoning and association.
Arthur Jensen: (1923-) U.C.-Berkeley educational psychologist whose explosive 1969 Harvard Educational Review article on intelligence suggested that whites are on average more intelligent than blacks.
Knockout Mouse: A mouse which has been genetically engineered to no longer express a particular gene. Scientists use these mice to determine the role of a gene by studying what happens to behavior and physiology when the gene is removed.
Lamarck, Jean-Baptiste: (1744-1829) French naturalist and pre-Darwinian evolutionist. Professor at the Museum of Natural History, Paris, Lamarck's major works were Philosophie Zoologique (1809) and Natural History of Invertebrate Animals (1815-22).
Lateral: Referring to a structure that is closer to the side or surface of another structure, as opposed medial. For example, the lateral part of an egg is the egg white, and the medial part is the yolk.
Literal comprehension: Understanding the facts.
Lou Gehrig's Disease: A common name for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), a disease that attacks the neurons of the brain and spinal cord. Typically, patients with ALS lose voluntary control over a period of years, and experience muscle atrophy.
Lyell, Sir Charles: (1797-1875) English naturalist whose The Principles of Geology (1830-33) argued for a uniformitarian, or gradual, approach to geology, and that forces producing geological change were still at work.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): A technique for imaging soft tissues, especially the brain, using magnets. While MRI provides a static image of the brain, a related technique called fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) can image changing activity within the brain.
Magnocellular pathway: A group of nerve fibers carrying high-contrast visual information, including information about motion in the visual field. The magnocellular pathway originates from M-type ganglion cells in the retina and terminates principally in the magnocellular layer of the lateral geniculate nucleus.
Main clause: Also known as the independent clause, the main clause is a sentence unto itself.
Medial: Referring to a structure that is closer to the midline of another structure, as opposed to a lateral. For example, the medial part of an egg is the yolk, while the lateral part is the egg white.
Midbrain: (See Mesencephalon)
Morphology: The word structure and the rules used to form new words; more specifically, it refers to the changes wrought by small word elements that affect word meaning, such as prefixes and suffixes.
Samuel George Morton: (1799-1851) American physician and naturalist who utilized his own extensive collection of human skulls in his comparative anthropology research. His major publication was Human Anatomy (1849).
Mozart effect: An effect first described in 1993 by Drs. Gordon Shaw and Frances Rauscher, who showed that undergraduates who listened to 10 minutes of a Mozart sonata performed better on cognitive tests. The improvement lasted for around 10-15 minutes, and the implications of the finding are still debated.
Multiple Intelligences Theory: The view championed by Dr. Howard Gardner that intelligence is not a singular property, but "the potential to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in at least one cultural context." (Gardner, 1983).
Myelin: A glassy, white sheath surrounding the axons of some neurons. Myelin acts as an insulator, and helps neural signals travel more quickly and over greater distances than they could in an uninsulated axon. Myelin is composed of Schwann cells that wrap themselves concentrically around the neural axon.
Natural Selection: A theory stating that individual organisms that survive to produce viable offspring pass on the genes that made the survival possible. On average, the fittest traits in a population are thereby transmitted to descending generations causing the selection for fitness to drive the evolution of the species.
Neocortex: Literally meaning "new cortex," because it evolved later than other brain areas. Also known as isocortex. Located in the dorsal, or front part of the brain, the neocortex is especially large in higher primates and is responsible for sensory and motor processing as well as abstract reasoning and association.
Neurofeedback, or EEG biofeedback: A therapy for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, among other disorders. It is based on self-regulation of brain wave activity when given visual and auditory feedback.
Newton, Sir Isaac: (1642-1727) English physicist and mathematician most often remembered for his Law of Gravity, which is said to have been brought about by his witnessing a falling apple. Among his many other accomplishments, he deduced that white light is a mixture of colors, and he devised the first reflecting telescope.
Norepinephrine: a neurotransmitter arising principally from neurons located in the locus ceruleus and projecting to many areas of the brain, including the limbic system. Deficient amounts of norepinephrine are associated with depression, and overabundant amounts with mania.
Nucleus: 1. An intracellular organelle that houses the cells DNA; 2. In neuroanatomy, a group of neurons that acts together to perform a specific function, most often referring to neurons in the brainstem.
Nursery Rhyme Effect: the effect achieved by introducing children to patterns of sounds, through nursery rhymes and early stories, so the child's brain receives the input it will need to categorize words by their internal structure.
Nystagmus: Rhythmic oscillation of the eyeballs, usually horizontally. Caloric nystagmus is a normal reaction to cold or warm water squirted into the ear; nystagmus can also be induced by rapidly turning the head to one side.
Off-Center: A receptive field shaped like two concentric discs, in which stimuli in the center disc are inhibitory and stimuli in the outer disc are excitatory. Off-center fields occur in bipolar and ganglion cells in the retina, as well as in M and P layer cells of the lateral geniculate nucleus.
On-Center: A receptive field shaped like two concentric discs, in which stimuli in the center disc are excitatory and stimuli in the outer disc are inhibitory. On-center fields occur in bipolar and ganglion cells in the retina, as well as in M and P layer cells of the lateral geniculate nucleus.
Onset: an optional part of a syllable that contains any consonant sounds which precede the vowel. For example, in "bet" the onset is b-, while in "spoke" the onset is sp-. Some syllables, such as "it", do not contain onsets.
Orbitofrontal Cortex (aka Brodmann's Area 47): A region of the frontal cortex which is involved in motor function and communicates with the basal ganglia as well as other limbic structures. This structure may be involved in mood-related disorders as well as motor dysfunction.
Pervasive Developmental Disorder: A severe disruption in a child's cognitive, behavioral, social and emotional growth that results in widespread distortion of the processes of development; example: childhood autism.
Phase-lock: A correspondence between the activities of two oscillating events. If these activities are represented as waves, then the peaks of the waves will be correlated at regular intervals. In the auditory system, the response of hair cells in the basilar membrane is phase-locked to low frequency sound waves.
Phase-shift: When the activity of one cycling event is displaced in time, or shifted, from the activity of another cycling event. If these activities are represented as waves, then one wave will lead the other.
Phineas Gage: A famous brain-damaged patient from the 19th century; he survived an explosion that drove a lead pipe through his brain but suffered a serious personality shift as a result of the accident.
Phonemes: The smallest recognizable speech sounds and root of all spoken language. When added together, phonemes create syllables, which allows the creation of words; for instance, "ox" is made up of three phonemes: /aa/, /k/, and /s/ (English contains 44 phonemes).
Phonological Skills: The ability to recognize and use all sizes of sound units, such as words, syllables and phonemes. Phonological processing, and particularly phonemic awareness, is a critical skill for learning to read or becoming a better reader.
Phylogenetic: Measured across species, a way of determining the chronological appearance of biological features (i.e., the older the species in terms of evolution, the longer the feature has been around).
Stephen Pinker (1954-): American psychologist noted for his books The Language Instinct and How the Mind Works. Currently a professor of psychology and Director of the Center for Cognitive Neuroscience at MIT.
Placenta: A fetal organ, approximately 9 inches in diameter, that is tightly attached to the inner lining of the uterus. The placenta consists of a root-like complex of fetal vessels coming from the uterine wall, bathed in maternal blood and supplied with fetal blood through the umbilical cord. The placenta is responsible for delivering nutrients from the mother to the fetus.
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): A disorder that causes people to relive emotionally stressful events as though they were actually occurring; most common in rape victims, disaster survivors and war veterans.
Presbyopia: A condition in which the eyes lens thickens and loses its ability to contract as a result of aging. Presbyopia is optically similar to hyperopia because it causes difficulty in focusing on near objects.
Primary-like response pattern: An activity pattern exhibited by some neurons in the cochlear nucleus. The primary-like response pattern is characterized by a large burst of action potentials at the stimulus onset, followed by little activity for the stimulus duration.
Primary Visual Cortex: Located in the occipital lobe. Receives the earliest information from the eyes by way of the thalamus. Also called Brodmann Area 17, after the anatomist who identified the region, or Striate Cortex, because in cross section the primary visual cortex has a distinct band of white myelin within the cell layer.
Pupillary light reflex: The response of the pupil to changing lighting conditions. The pupil constricts in response to bright light, and dilates in response to dim light. In the direct pupillary light reflex, light shining into one eye causes the ipsilateral pupil to constrict. In the consensual pupillary light reflex, light shining into one eye causes the contralateral pupil to constrict.
R-controlled vowel: The vowel immediately preceding an r within the same syllable; that vowel's pronunciation is affected by the r.
Receptive field: The set of stimulus characteristics that a neuron responds to optimally. For visual neurons, this might be a particular shape or a particular region of space. For auditory neurons, it might be a particular range of sound frequencies.
Relative clause: Also known as the dependent clause, a relative clause refers to the main clause and cannot stand alone as an independent sentence.
Resonant frequency: Energy delivered to an oscillating system at the resonant frequency will increase the amplitude of the oscillations. For example, when a child is on a swing, she tends to time her kicks to the resonant frequency of the swing so that she can go higher.
Retina: A sheet of tissue at the back of the eye which converts light into electrochemical signals, pre-processes those signals to detect contrast changes, edges, and color, and then sends the pre-processed information on to the brain.
Reversible nouns: Two nouns within a sentence that can be substituted for one another without making the sentence inconsistent or unreasonable. A sentence like The monkey pays the snake has reversible nouns because the snake can just as reasonably pay the monkey as vice versa. However, The mouse ate the cheese does not have reversible nouns; it isn't reasonable to think that cheese can eat a mouse.
Rhombencephalon (Hindbrain): Often referred to as the brainstem. Includes the pons, cerebellum and medulla oblongata.
Rime: An obligatory part of a syllable that contains the vowel and any consonant sounds that follow it. For example, in "bet" the rime is -et. Single-syllable words with the same rime typically rhyme with one another: bat, sat, flat, and splat all contain the rime -at.
Schizophrenia: A neuropsychological disorder characterized by any combination of inappropriate affect, hallucinations, delusions, and psychotic episodes. Development of schizophrenia has a genetic component, and is associated with excess dopaminergic transmission.
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI): a class of drugs, used to treat depression, that regulate the movement of serotonin in the nervous system. Examples include Luvox, Paxil, Prozac, and Zoloft.
Semicircular canals: A fluid-filled part of the cochlea. Tiny hair cells in these canals detect the motion of the fluid, providing information that gives our brain a sense of balance and head position.
Somatic Nervous System: Also called the voluntary nervous system, the somatic nervous system is a component of the peripheral nervous system that controls voluntary actions by carrying signals to skeletal muscles to make them contract.
Spinal cord: A large bundle of nerve fibers beginning at the base of the brainstem and continuing down to the tail bone. The spinal cord is a part of the central nervous system, and most of the fibers within it serve motor and sensory functions.
Robert Sternberg: Yale psychologist responsible for the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence, which poses that three facets make up what we call intelligence, including analytical, creative and practical intelligences.
Strabismus: Also called "lazy eye", strabismus is a failure of both eyes to maintain the same direction of gaze. The disparity of the images entering the eyes causes one eye to be favored; the result of prolonged strabismus is amblyopia.
Striate cortex: Structure located in the occipital lobe that, in cross section, has a distinct band of white myelin within the cell layer. Also called Brodmann Area 17, after the anatomist who identified the region, : or : V1, primary visual cortex, because it receives the earliest information from the eyes by way of the thalamus.
Stroop Effect: A type of cognitive interference first described by Dr. J.R. Stroop in 1935. The Stroop Effect is an increase in reaction time evident when a subject has to identify one stimulus property that conflicts with a more salient stimulus property. For example, if the word "blue" is written in red ink, a subject will have a hard time identifying the ink color.
Subthalamic nucleus: A group of neurons that resides just below the thalamus and comprises part of the basal ganglia. These neurons are in communication with neurons in the globus pallidus, and are a target for electrical stimulation in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
Superior colliculus: A nucleus in the midbrain which controls saccadic eye movements. The superior colliculus is also responsible for turning the head and eyes to see a stimulus that is heard or felt.
Superior Temporal Gyrus: Located within the temporal cortex, the superior temporal gyrus helps process morphemes that describe syntactic features, such as the "-s" in "dogs" and the "-ed" in "barked" .
Syllabary: The system of writing that uses symbol-syllable correspondence rules; languages with relatively few syllables are well-suited for syllabaries (e.g., Hiragana, one of the Japanese systems of writing).
Syntax: The structure of a language, or the rules which specify how grammatical markers and words are combined to make meaningful sentences; the part of speech of a word (for instance, noun or adverb).
Telencephalon: Located in the forebrain and associated with perception and initiation of action. Believed to be the site of the highest intellectual functions and the origin of the entire cerebral cortex.
Lewis M. Terman: (1877-1956) American educational psychologist who updated Alfred Binets aptitude test, the Binet-Simon Scale, creating the Stanford-Binet intelligence test (1916), which was widely used throughout the twentieth century.
Taste Receptor Cells: Cells in the tongue which can sense molecules that carry taste information. These cells respond to these tastant molecules by changing their internal calcium concentration. This response is then communicated to nearby nerves, which communicate the signal to the brain.
Text-driven logic: The student using text-driven logic comprehends the words in a sentence, comprehends the syntax, and formulates the correct gist from the sentence.
Thalamus: A structure in the brain that traffics sensory information such as vision, hearing and touch coming into the brain and distributes that information to appropriate areas of the cerebral cortex.
Tinnitus: A ringing in the ear.
E.L. Thorndike (1874-1949): American psychologist who pioneered the study of animal intelligence. The author of some 450 books and articles, Thorndike was an influential force in twentieth century educational psychology.
Tinnitus: Ringing of the ears.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) : A cortical stimulation technique. Electromagnets outside the head create fluctuating magnetic fields that induce electric currents in specific areas of the brain.
Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS): a technique that uses a low powered electrical device to stimulate nerve fibers without penetrating the skin. TENS is typically used for pain management.
Visceral nervous system: Also known as the autonomic nervous system. Receives input from, and sends output to, our internal organs. Responsible for controlling involuntary functions such as blood flow, breathing and digestion.
Voluntary nervous system: Also called the somatic nervous system, the voluntary nervous system is a component of the peripheral nervous system that controls voluntary actions by carrying signals to skeletal muscles to make them contract.
von Humboldt, Alexander: (1769-1859) German-born naturalist whose exploration of South America (1799-1804) produced many new scientific discoveries. His Personal Narrative of the journey is a travel literature classic and greatly influenced later scientist like Charles Darwin.
Wallace, Alfred Russel: (1823-1913) English naturalist who produced a theory of natural selection independent of Charles Darwin. A letter explaining his ideas was read alongside an outline of Darwin's Origin of Species to an 1858 a meeting of the Linnaean Society, thus introducing the world to modern evolutionary theory.
Carl Wernicke (1848-1905): German neurobiologist who studied brain damage, particularly the form of aphasia in which language comprehension is impaired. Discovered the region of the brain involved in this illness, now known as Wernicke's Area.
R. M. Yerkes: (1876-1956) American psycho-biologist who promoted the development of intelligence tests to classify servicemen during World War I. Also an important early figure in animal intelligence studies, publishing a number of books on the subject.